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Comparison of Operating Systems

(last update: April 2024)
including Windows, macOS, iOS, Android, Chrome OS, GNU/Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, DragonFly BSD, Illumos, Haiku, ArcaOS, RISC OS, MorphOS, AmigaOS, AROS, and OpenVMS.

Also shown: How to run them in a virtual machine

And: Estimated market share of consumer operating systems since 1970!

Operating Systems: Timeline and Family Tree

(last update: April 2023)
includes about 1,130 operating systems since the beginning of computing!

Comparison of Android ROMs

(last update: April 2024)
Comparison of 7 Android ROMs: GrapheneOS, DivestOS, CalyxOS, iodeOS, /e/, LineageOS, and stock Android.

Comparison & Timeline of Linux Distributions

(last update: April 2024)
Comparison of almost 20 Linux distributions: Debian, Ubuntu, openSUSE Tumbleweed, openSUSE MicroOS, SUSE Linux Enterprise, Fedora Workstation, Fedora Immutable Desktop, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, OpenMandriva, Mageia, PCLinuxOS, Arch, Slackware, Gentoo, Alpine, Void, NixOS, Guix System, and Solus.

In the Appendix: How heterogeneous are the distributions today and how heterogeneous have they been historically? Looking at the most important distributions and their choice of desktop environment, widget toolkit, display server, package format, file system, init sofware, and security module from the year 2000 until today.

Also: A look at the relative popularity of Linux distributions over time, measured by Distrowatch hits.

Comparison & List of Desktop Environments

(last update: April 2024)
including Microsoft Windows, Aqua (macOS), KDE Plasma, GNOME, Xfce, MATE, Cinnamon, LXQt, Budgie (and formerly also: CDE, Enlightenment, Trinity, Unity, Pantheon, Lumina, Deepin, and UKUI).

Also includes are very exhaustive list of available desktop environments, including discontinued and mobile ones.

Also shown: Screenshots and short personal reviews of all the major desktops!

Default Desktop Environments for Linux and Unix

(last update: January 2024)
Timeline since 1990 showing the most important distributions and their default desktops (KDE, GNOME, Xfce and others)

Comparison of Web Browsers

(last update: March 2024)
including Chrome, Edge, Safari, Firefox, Opera, Brave, and Vivaldi. Desktop, Android and iOS.

History of Web Browser Engines from 1990 until today

(last update: April 2023)
Many tried, few remain. Will any Chromium competitors be left in a few years?

Comparison of Instant Messengers

(last update: March 2024)
including SimpleX, XMPP/Conversations, Delta Chat, Matrix/Element, Signal, Telegram, Threema, Facebook Messenger, Line, Viber, and WhatsApp

Comparison of Payment Methods NEW

(last update: April 2024)
including various cryptocurrencies (Monero, Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin) and traditional payment methods

Comparison of Cloud, Sync & Email services

(last update: February 2024)
Who can compete with Apple, Microsoft and Google while offering more privacy and features? Comparison of about 40 different providers with some recommendations at the end