Family Tree of Languages
Last updated: 2016
This post shows the languages and language families of the world and their possible family tree (meaning, how the language might have historically separated assuming only one original human language in prehistoric times from which all contemporary languages ultimately derive).
If you find this interesting, you may also want to check out my world map of (currently spoken) language families.
Please note that only the outmost level of the mindmap shows generally accepted or at least probable language relations or families. Two languages separated by a comma are languages that could be related, but this relationship is not established yet, while two languages joined with a hyphen are an accepted mini-family.
The distinction of the 3 fundamental branches "Austral, Boreal, Khoisan" was taken from British linguist Roger Blench.
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Below is the list in text format:
Boreal branch Nostratic super-macrofamily Kartvelian Afroasiatic Elamo-Dravidian Dravidian Harappan Elamic Lulubean Eurasiatic macrofamily Macro-Indo-European Indo-European Gutian Elymian Altaic Turko-Mongolic Turkic Para-Mongolic Manchu-Tungusic Koreanic-Japonic Koreanic (Buyeo, Silla, Korean, Jeju) Japonic (Japanese, Ryukyu, Gaya) Uralo-Siberian Uralic-Yukaghiric Eskimo-Siberian Nivkh Chukotko-Kamchatkan Eskimo-Aleut Aegean Tyrsenian (Etruscan, Raetic, Lemnian, Camunic) Minoian & Eteocrete Eteocypriot Dene-Daic super-macrofamily Dene-Caucasian macrofamily Sumerian Baikal-Siberic Dene-Yenisseian Na-Dene Karasuk Burushaski Yenisseian Xiongnu Dingling Vasco-Caucasian North Caucasian North West Caucasian Abkhaso-Adygeian Hattic Kaskian Alarodian Hurro-Urartian (Hurrian, Urartian, Kassite) Nakho-Dagestanian Vasconic Basque-Aquitanian Iberian Tartessian Nahali-Kusunda Macro-Sino-Tibetan Sino-Tibetan Mishmic/Digaro Kamengic/Kho-Bwa Siangic Miji Hruso Miju/Kaman Puroik/Sulung Austric macrofamily Hmong-Mien Austroasiatic Austro-Tai Amerindian macrofamily Ge-Pano-Carib Macro-Carib Macro-Panoan Macro-Ge North Central Amerindian North Amerindian Penutian-Hokan Central Amerindian Tanoan Uto-Aztecan Oto-Manguean South Amerindian Andean-Chibchan-Paezan Equatorial-Tucanoan North Picene (unclassified but Boreal branch) Sikanic (unclassified but Boreal branch) Nuragic (unclassified but Boreal branch) Khoisan branch Austral branch Kongo-Saharan macrofamily Australian macrofamily Macro-Pama-Nyungan Greater Pama-Nyungan Pama-Nyungan Tangkic Garawan Arnhem-Eastern Daly Macro-Gunwinyguan/Arnhem & Enindhilyagwa Eastern Daly Bunuban Jarrakan Arnhem Land (Iwaidjan & Glimbiyu) Mirndi Nyulnyulan Wagaydyic Worroran Yangmanic Northern Daly Southern Daly Western Daly Marrku-Wurrugu Tiwi Wagiman Darwin Indo-Pacific macrofamily Proto-Negrito (mostly isolates and substrates) Andamanese Great Andamanese Little Andamanese (Ongan, Jarawa, Sentinelese) Shompen Proto-Orang-Asli Proto-Philippine Tasmanian North Tasmanian North Eastern Tasmanian Eastern Tasmanian Western Tasmanian Papuan Wurm's Trans-New Guinea Mairasi Lakes Plain Eastern Trans-Fly Nimboran Tor-Kwerba (Orya, Tor, Sause, Kwerba, Mawes, Isirawa) Kaure + Kapori + Kosare Ross's Trans-New Guinea Trans-New Guinea + Dem + Pawaia Goilalan Kiwaian & Porome Pauwasi Teberan Left May-Kwomtari Amot-Musan Border & Elseng Trans-Fly-Bulaka River (Bulaka River, Pahoturi, Waia, Yam) Doso-Turumsa Lower Mamberamo East Geelvink Bay Namla-Tofanma Skou Abinomn Busa Extended West Papuan West Papuan (Halmahera, West Bird's Head) + Amberbaken + Hattam + Abun + Mai Brat East Bird's Head + Sentani Yawa Yale Lepki-Murkim Kembra Massep Dibiyaso/Bainapi East Papuan Yele-West New Britain Baining + Kol + Sulka South Bougainville North Bougainville Central Solomon Kuot Sepik-Ramu Talap Ramu-Lower Sepik Arafundi & Piawi Yuat & Maramba Torricelli-Sepik Proto-Vedda (unclassified but Austral branch) Proto-Vazimba-Beosi (unclassified but Austral branch) Proto-Mbenga (unclassified but Austral branch) Bangime (unclassified but Austral branch) Hadza & Oropom (unclassified but Austral branch) Jalaa (unclassified but Austral branch) Laal (unclassified but Austral branch) Dompo (unclassified but Austral branch) Kujarge (unclassified but Austral branch) Rimba (unclassified but Austral branch) Pericu (unclassified but Austral branch) Yagan (unclassified but Austral branch) Kawesqar (unclassified but Austral branch)