Last updated: 2021
In this post, I have presented a classification system for political parties in the Europe of today. In short, it included the 3 classical blocs (Socialist, Conservative, Liberal), but added an axis of identitarian vs. anti-identitarian, which as I explained is essentially the modern meaning of right-wing and left-wing in the European context.
This "political circle" shows a more general classification of political ideologies. I identified four major values: equality and social justice, freedom and individuality, tradition and reaction, as well as strength and brotherhood. These correspond approximately to the four big ideologies of socialism, liberalism, conservatism, and nationalism - the four big ideologies identified in the 19th century following the French Revolution. Traditionalism died a gradual death (in Europe) between the French Revolution and the Russian Revolution (it still lives on in some Islamic states and in the ideology of Islamism itself). Authoritarian nationalism (including National Socialism and Fascism) died in 1945 with some last regimes lasting until the 1970s. Finally, Communism has been moribund with the collapse of the Soviet Union although it still lives on in China and a few other countries. The big winner of the 20th century is Liberalism, both socially and economically.
The centre of the circle represents the politically moderate forces, while the outside represents various extreme ideologies. For example, on the end of the "brotherhood" axis you will find National Socialism (anti-liberal, anti-communist, progressive/anti-traditional) with its militaristic inclination and the ideas of racial hygiene and social darwinism (classical Fascism is slightly more moderate as it lacks the latter two). Likewise, on the end of the "equality" axis you'll find Marxist Communism (anti-liberal, anti-national, progressive/anti-traditional) with its utopia of a classless stateless society (although it must be said that in reality all attempts have resulted in the opposite: a totalitarian murderous dictatorship led by a tiny elite). In between the two, you will find Strasserism and National Bolshevism, which combine the nationalism of fascist ideologies with the left-wing economics of communist ideologies.
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